situs judi slot terbaik dan terpercaya no 1



Study Of Dispersal Of Seeds By Various Agencies Pdf Download —

the authors thank the national natural parks management institute and the secretaria de conservación de la fauna y flora de colombia (semarnat) for their permission to carry out this research. the authors also thank all authors who kindly provided seed species data and the comments by felipe velazco córdoba who helped to improve the english of this manuscript.

we determined the potential for seed dispersal by p. natalis for each of the three groups of simultaneously tracked individuals via the least cost path (lcp) between foraging locations using the geospatial modeling environment (gme) 1.5 [ 71 ]. the gme was chosen because the program can use both gps fixes and lineages as a means of dispersion. in the lcp analyses, we assumed seeds were dispersed via leks as is typical for bats of this species, and our data show that leks are utilized as feeding areas for multiple bats. we excluded leks from our analyses because of the likelihood that our study design would not include the entire area of one lek. we also wanted to identify foraging areas used by only one or a few individuals and to eliminate possible bias due to the way the data were collected. we chose the minimum cost travel (mct) algorithm because it maximized the number of gps fixes used to create a lcp. both algorithms resulted in the same solution for each group of tracked individuals as determined by the overlap between fas identified in the lcp (when fas overlapped in a given group, only two fas for the group were used and these two were overlapped) and the overlap between overlapping gps fixes from the fas of the same group.

in a previous study, conducted over a three-year period, pollen detection rates were correlated to the number of plant families and plant species visited, respectively, by p. natalis individuals [ 54 ]. this study reports the number of visits, plant families, and species within each sampled nightly foraging area; accordingly, we found that smaller bats visited a greater number of nightly foraging areas than larger conspecifics (fig. 4 c), visited a greater diversity of foraging areas (fig. 4 b and fig. 4 c), and accounted for a greater percentage of the total pollen load collected by p. natalis foragers. these results demonstrate that smaller bats may be more important in the dispersal of plant species, as has been found in other studies of pteropus spp. [ 55 ]. we measured the diversity of pollen loads carried by p. natalis by carrying out clumping analyses on ground pollen samples. because ground pollen was carried on bat fur, larger amounts of pollen may be expected due to the larger body mass and surface area of a bat’s fur, compared to their smaller counterparts. on the other hand, a bat’s foraging success and relative importance in plant pollen transfer may be directly proportional to the number of pollen grains carried and the distance traveled during foraging trips. therefore, the number of visits and distance traveled, as well as diversity in the plant taxa (diversity of vegetation habitats) and family (number of plant families) visited per nightly foraging area, may be expected to positively correlate to the amount of pollen carried. our results show that smaller bats carried greater amounts of pollen and visited a greater diversity of nightly foraging areas than larger conspecifics, however, the total amount of pollen carried by p. natalis was not significantly greater than in larger bats. these results indicate that, although smaller bats visited a higher diversity of foraging areas and carried a higher percentage of the total pollen load, they carried less pollen per visit. 5ec8ef588b